2011.10.31 第8回GCOE国際セミナー

カナダのヨーク大学のLaurence Packer博士をお招きし、10月31日(月)~11月2日(水)にGCOE国際セミナーを開催します。Packer博士は昆虫学が専門で、ハナバチの生態、分類、系統に関する研究をされています。特に最近はDNA barcodingに力を入れられ、国際ハナバチ類DNA barcoding推進プロジェクト委員会の委員長をされ精力的に活動されています。本セミナーでは、下記のように3日3回のご講演をお願いしています。

本セミナーは、GCOEアジア保全生態学コース授業科目「国際セミナーI, II」(D1,D2の必修科目)の一環です。この科目では、一年間を通じて少なくとも2回は出席することが条件となっています。対象となる院生の方々は参加してください。また他の大学院生や学部生、スタッフの方の参加も大歓迎ですので、どうぞご来聴ください。

10月31日夜にはPackerさんを囲んだ懇親会を予定しています。参加を希望される方は、多田内(tadauchi<at>agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp)までご連絡ください。


【日時】2011年10月31日(月)~11月2日(水)13:00-14:30
【会場】九州大学箱崎キャンパス
    10月31日(月)農学部1号館2階 218講義室
    11月1(火)~2日(水)農学部1号館4階 419講義室
【講演者】Prof. Laurence Packer (York University, Canada)
【タイトル】Bees; diversity and conservation
【要旨】
  In this talk I will outline the importance and taxonomic,
behavioural and ecological diversity of bees.  I will then discuss the
attributes of bees that make them particularly useful for conservation
and biodiversity research.  The solutions to impediments to the use of
bees to monitor the environment will be discussed.
   Bees are the most important pollinators of agricultural crops
and wild flowers.  They are found on land on all continents except
Antarctica and occur from below sea level to 4,500m in altitude.
Their haplodiploid sex determination system has diploid male
production as a direct consequence.  This produces the highest genetic
load known and makes small bee populations particularly susceptible to
extinction.  In turn, this suggests the potential utility of our using
assessments of bee diversity to monitor the state of the terrestrial
environment.

  In this talk I will dispel some myths about what bees are and
what they do.  I will then discuss the taxonomic diversity of the
almost 20,000 known species and introduce their ecological and
behavioural diversity.  The taxonomic and ecological diversity of bees
provides a broad range of ways in which bees can be used to monitor
the state of terrestrial environments.  Recent research has studied
the utility of different bee guilds for assessing the impact of
different anthropogenic influences on the environment.  The most
commonly used guilds involve nest site (above ground versus below
ground), sociality (solitary versus social) and lecty (the degree to
which the species concentrate pollen foraging upon one, or a few
closely related, floral hosts).  Unpublished data suggest that the
cleptoparasitic bee guild may be particularly suitable for
environmental monitoring.  Such considerations suggest that eusocial
bees and cleptoparasitic species are likely to be most vulnerable to
extinction.  Consequently, it is not surprising that the first two bee
species to be considered for listing under the Canadian Species At
Risk Act are a bumble bee and a cuckoo bee.  Processess associated
with assessing these species by the Committee on the Status of
Endangered Wildlife in Canada will be discussed.

 The problem with the practical use of bees for environmental
monitoring is the taxonomic impediment: the sheer number of species.
This is particularly problematic for the enormous genera Andrena,
Lasioglossum and Megachile each of which contain over 1000 species.  I
will outline two major ways in which this taxonomic impediment can be
overcome: user-friendly, interactive, copiously illustrated keys and
DNA barcoding.  The former rely on age-old methods, but with improved
clarity and with all key characteristics illustrated with digital
images.  The latter employs a small portion of the mitochondrial COI
gene (the “barcode region”) which has been shown to be suitable for
species identification in organisms from fungi to mammals.  The bee
barcoding database now includes at least one partial sequence for at
least one species for at least 75% of the world’s bee genera and has a
number of species-level clusters equivalent to almost 25% of the
world’s known bee species.

 The sensitivity of bees to negative environmental impacts,
applicability of different guilds to assess different environmental
impacts, and progress in the development of rapid identification
methods all suggest that, overall, the promise for using bees to
monitor the state of the terrestrial environment is good.
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